The Internet: Twenty Years in Review, 1995 – 2015 (Adoption of the 2)

This Week, “Adoption of the Internet, part 2″

Built on the back of innovation and government support, a handful of distributed computers would be interconnected. Smart people had to develop communications technologies, architecture, applications and infrastructure to expand this concept into reality.

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  • Lawrence G. Roberts is an American scientist who received the Draper Prize in 2001 and the Principe de Asturias Award in 2002 “for the development of the Internet” As a program manager and office director at the AdvancedLarry Roberts - AnagranResearch Projects Agency, Roberts and his team created the ARPANET using packet switching techniques. The ARPANET was a predecessor to the modern Internet.






  • The initial ARPANET consisted of four nodes:
    • University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where Leonard Kleinrock had established a Network Measurement Center, with an SDS Sigma 7 being the first computer attached to it;
    • The Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), whereDouglas Engelbart had created the ground-breaking NLS system, a very important early hypertextsystem, and would run the Network Information Center (NIC), with the SDS 940 that ran NLS, named “Genie”, being the first host attached;
    • University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), with the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center’sIBM 360/75, running OS/MVT being the machine attached;
    • The University of Utah’s Computer Science Department, where Ivan Sutherland had moved, running aDEC PDP-10 operating on TENEX.



  • The first successful message on the ARPANET was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline, at 10:30 pm on 29 October 1969, from Boelter Hall 3420. Kline transmitted from the university’s SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the Stanford Research Institute’s SDS 940 Host computer. The message text was the word login; on an earlier attempt the l and the o letters were transmitted, but the system then crashed. Hence, the literal first message over the ARPANET was lo. About an hour later, after the programmers repaired the code that caused the crash, the SDS Sigma 7 computer effected a full login. The first permanent ARPANET link was established on 21 November 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. By 5 December 1969, the entire four-node network was established.



  • Expanding on the subsidized project, Leonard Kleinrock’s and Paul Baran’s work, Lawrence Roberts implemented the ARPANET platform as a packet switching network.
  • ARPANET come alive with four nodes, the functioning predecessor to the Internet
  • Steve Crocker proposes a host application and submits it for community input
  • Despite a crash, a login message was successful across the ARPANET from one system to another

 . . . part 3

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